Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders caused by abnormal development of the cerebral cortex in utero secondary to genetic, infectious or vascular factors. This VISUOG chapter will focus specifically on Group 2 (Barkovich Classification) malformations, which include lissencephaly, cobblestone malformation, and heterotopia. These conditions all result from abnormal neuronal migration.

MCD (Malformations of Cortical Development) can be diagnosed using both fetal MRI and ultrasound (US). However, the diagnosis remains challenging due to the late gestational appearance of the typical morphologic features. Additionally, performing a multiplanar, preferably transvaginal, neurosonogram to identify these malformations requires a high level of expertise.

This chapter is great learning for describing and visually depicting the characteristic features of lissencephaly type I and type II and depicting what early detection of abnormal cortical malformations look like before 24 weeks on a scan.

The chapter provides a comprehensive overview of malformations of cortical development, covering their classification, prevalence, timing of development, and imaging diagnosis. It delves into detailed descriptions pertaining to the diagnosis of each type of malformation. Both dedicated neurosonography and MRI can depict fetal cortical malformations. Neurosonography, widely available and safe for both mother and fetus, is considered an important imaging tool for prenatal malformation screening. It can detect lissencephalies and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH). Nevertheless, MRI is a superior imaging modality due to its optimal delineation of grey and white matter.

This chapter offers valuable insights into the implications of standard examinations, the implications of a targeted examination, and obstetrical management, making it a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers.

Read the VISUOG chapter on MCDs for free throughout May.

Access all 200+ VISUOG chapters with ISUOG membership, and benefit from on-demand lectures, CME activities, discounted events/education courses and more. Sign up now and use code VISUOG10 for a 10% discount.