Supplement your learning for ISUOG's education course on the fetal brain.

Explore the topic before you attend our course:

In order to make the most of this learning experience and help you achieve your learning objectives, we have prepared a path to guide you from the essentials to our course’s topics through ISUOG resources. The material below will take you from the most basic aspects to a more comprehensive view of the course material, and some activities may grant you CME points.

Some of these activities are exclusively available to our members. Become a member today.


Agenesis of the septum pellucidum main pic.JPG

Agenesis of Septum Pellucidum

Absence of the septum pellucidum is found with many cerebral malformations, including holoprosencephaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly, open spina bifida, cortical malformations. It may be an isolated abnormality and in this case the cerebral anatomy is unremarkable but for fusion of the frontal horns.

Severe Ventirulomegaly main pic.JPG

Severe ventriculomegaly

The current definition is an increased size of the lateral ventricles, with a transverse diameter of the atrium in excess of 15mm without evidence of other cerebral malformations. It is a rare condition, usually a part of complex cerebral abnormalities, less frequently the consequence of obstructed cerebrospinal fluid turnover.

Intracranial Hemorrage main pic.JPG1

Intracranial hemorrage

Intracranial hemorrage may occur within the lateral ventricles or in the subdural space. The sonographic appearance changes with time. An echogenic collection is first seen, and in the following days it develops into a complex mass frequently complicated by sever ventriculomegaly. In the most severe forms the hemoragge may be complicated by an infarct in the brain parenchyma. The etiology is variable.

Porencephaly main pic.JPG


Porencephaly is characterized by single or multiple cysts replacing the brain parenchyma. The cyst may communicate with the lateral ventricle, subarachnoid space or both. It is usually a sporadic condition caused by hemorrage, ischemia or infections.

Dandy walker complex main pic.JPG

Dandy-Walker Complex

Under this term are included a group of conditions that share in common one sonographic findings: the impression that the fourth ventricle communicates with the cisterna magna. These conditions include: Dandy-Walker malformation, Blake’s pouch cyst, vermian hypoplasia/agenesis. They have a similar sonographic appearance, particularly in early gestation, and differentiation requires a multiplanar approach.

Yolk Sac Tumors

This leaflet is to help you understand what Yolk Sac Tumors are, what tests you need and the implication of having been diagnosed with Agnesis of Septum Pellucidum is for you, your baby and your family.


UOG Articles

Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of fetuses with isolated agenesis of septum pellucidum: cohort study and meta-analysis

E. Di Pasquo,M. Kuleva,C. Arthuis,G. Morganelli,F. Ormitti,A.-E. Millischer,D. Grevent,Y. Ville,T. Ghi,L. J. Salomon

15 August 2021


Low torcular Herophili position and large brainstem–tentorium angle in fetuses with open spinal dysraphism at 11–13 weeks' gestation

P. Volpe,R. De Robertis,T. Fanelli,S. Boito,G. Volpe,C. Votino,N. Persico,R. Chaoui

14 June 2021


Early second-trimester three-dimensional transvaginal neurosonography of fetal midbrain and hindbrain: normative data and technical aspects

R. Birnbaum,R. Barzilay,M. Brusilov,P. Acharya,G. Malinger,K. Krajden Haratz

18 May 2021


First-trimester fetal neurosonography: technique and diagnostic potential

N. Volpe,A. Dall'Asta,E. Di Pasquo,T. Frusca,T. Ghi

13 October 2020


Accuracy of prenatal ultrasound screening to identify fetuses infected by cytomegalovirus which will develop severe long‐term sequelae

M. Leruez-Ville, S. Ren, J.-F. Magny, F. Jacquemard, S. Couderc, P. Garcia, A.-M. Maillotte, M. Benard, D. Pinquier, P. Minodier, D. Astruc, H. Patural, M. Ugolin, S. Parat, B. Guillois, A. Garenne, M. Parodi, L. Bussières, J. Stirnemann, P. Sonigo, A. E. Millischer, Y. Ville

27 April 2020


Sonographic detection of fetal abnormalities before 11 weeks of gestation

D. L. Rolnik, D. Wertaschnigg, B. Benoit, S. Meagher

11 November 2019