Supplement your learning for ISUOG's education course on Fetal Anomalies.

Explore the topic before you attend our course:

In order to make the most of this learning experience and help you achieve your learning objectives, we have prepared a path to guide you from the essentials to our course’s topics through ISUOG resources. The material below will take you from the most basic aspects to a more comprehensive view of the course material, and some activities may grant you CME points.

Some of these activities are exclusively available to our members. Become a member today.


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Diaphragmatic hernia

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a fetal defect associated with a higher risk of mortality due to pulmonary hypertension and lung hypoplasia. Fetal diagnosis is based on demonstration of an abnormality in the thoracic view. Prognosis is based on evaluation of the lung size in the contralateral side of the hernia.

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Hydrothorax is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. Prenatal hydrothorax can be unilateral or bilateral and may be either an isolated finding or be secondary to another cause, even a part of a generalized hydrops. Prenatal diagnosis is based on the demonstration of fluid collection in the thorax.

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Echogenic & cystic lungs

Explore chapters on Tracheal Obstruction, Echogenic Lungs and Lung Cyst.

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Ventral Wall Defects

Explore chapters on Omphalocele, Gastroschisis, Bladder exstrophy, Cloacal Exstrophy and Limb Body Wall Complex.


Abdominal fluid collections

Explore chapters on Meconium Peritonitis

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Abdominal cysts

Explore chapters on choledocal cysts, mesenteric cysts, intenstinal duplication cysts, hepatic cysts, meconium pseudocyst, urinoma, splenic cysts and ovarian cysts

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Obstructive Lesions

Explore chapters on Anal atresia, Volvulus, Meckel's diverticulum, Hydrometrocolpos, and Jejunal-ileal atresia

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Small chest

Explore chapters on Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, Chondroectodermal dysplasia, Thanatophoric Dysplasia, Jarcho-Levine Syndrome and Pulmonary Hypoplasia Induced by Oligohydramnios.

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Fetal Hydronephrosis

Fetal hydronephrosis is the dilation of either the fetal renal pelvis alone or of both the fetal renal pelvis and the calices. Its prevalence is 0.6-5.4%, with male predominance. The most common causes are transient hydronephrosis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux. For the diagnosis the UTD classification system may be used. The prognosis is usually good; only 5% of patients will require surgery. Management should focus on careful follow-up.

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Polycystic kidneys

Explore chapters on Multicystic dysplastic kidney and Polycystic kidneys.

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Abnormal bladder

Explore chapters on Megacystis, Bladder Exstrophy and Congenital Megalourethra.

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Arthrogryposes – multiple joint contractures – are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous class of diseases, where accurate diagnosis, recognition of the underlying pathology and classification are of key importance for the prognosis as well as for the selection of appropriate management.

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Clubfoot is one of the most common congenital anomalies detected prenatally with a prevalence ranging from 1/1000 to 3/1000 live births.

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Campomelic Dysplasia

Campomelic dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia with multiple congenital anomalies, mainly characterized by shortening and bowing of long bones, abnormal face, hypoplastic scapulae, and male-to-female sex reversal.

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Achondrogenesis, a lethal diagnosis, is a group of severe osteochondrodyplasias characterised by extremely short limbs, small body, and narrow chest.

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Diastrophic Dysplasia

Diastrophic dysplasia is a form of osteochondrodysplasia, characterised by abnormalities in the skeletal and cartilaginous systems.